Small Computer Keyboard/ Hot & cold engine, etc.

Name : Mr. Sudarshanasud---2

District & State :  -1, Karnataka

Category : Engineering

Award :   National

Award Function :   1st National Grassroots Innovation Awards

Award Year : 2001

Innovation Description

Small Keyboard for Computers: Keyboard is one of the main parts of computers, calculators, cell phones etc. Even though the size of the chip is shrinking gradually, the keyboard remains same. But he has innovated a small keyboard, which is handy and can be easily operated. In the new design, the number of keys is double and the width of a key is halved. Key is nothing but a switch, which breaks or closes an electronic circuit. When key ‘A’ is pressed, it closes a circuit, which feeds the computer chip a signal corresponding to letter ‘A’. In the new design instead of pressing a single key, two keys are pressed together. When keys one and two are pressed together, it closes a circuit, which feeds the computer chip a signal corresponding to ‘A’. When keys two and three are pressed together, it closes a circuit, which feeds the computer chip a signal corresponding to ‘B’. This can be achieved by using a simple electronic circuit as shown in the picture or by simply providing two switches in a single key as shown in the circuit V. Hot And Cold Engine In this engine, convection current is used to rotate the turbine. ‘A’ is the turbine keyboardfitted inside a liquid (water) filled chamber. When heated from below, hot liquid moves upward rotating the turbine. The specialty of this engine is that cooling also can run it. Instead of heating, channel ‘B’ provided the down flow of liquid and it remains cool. It also induces convection current and rotates the turbine. By synchronizing the heating and cooling power, the efficiency of the engine can be increased. Transparent Letter Box: Letterbox is often placed in front of the house to help the postman. But it is difficult to know whether the box contains letters without opening it everyday. Using a transparent plastic letterbox can solve this problem. Chopping of Onion Without Tears: It is a very simple way. Chopping of onion can be done in front of a running fan, so that the airflow drives away the pungent smell and irritation. No harm is caused to the eyes. Solar Energy Concentrator: Solar energy can be concentrated by using lens or parabolic reflector, but one has to follow the sun throughout the day. This is a cumbersome procedure. A simple flat plate collector can collect abundant quantity of solar energy. The temperature will not be more than 60-70 0C. If a method is devised to increase the temperature, it will revolutionize the use of solar energy. There are two ways, while lens is used with the first method; parabola is applied in the other. In the figure1, ‘A’ is a flat and round box made of very thin sheet having good heat conducting metal. It is well insulated from all sides except the face. The face is painted black. Lens ‘B’ is fitted as shown in figure. ‘C’ is the focal point of the lens. The air inside is removed and a vacuum created. Hot water at 60-70 0C,from the flat plate collector is let into the box. The lens concentrates the heat radiated from the box face at point ‘C’. The temperature at ‘C’ will be higher than that of the box face. It depends on the area of the box face. It will be increased as per the need. In figure 2, heat radiated from the black face of the parabola concentrates at ‘C’. This method does not need any energy like a heat pump. So it’s economical. Toilet Flush Most ‘Toilet Flush’ do not work properly or are out of order. So a new one has been designed. At the center of this toilet flush, is a four-way valve. In the first position of the valve, water flows from the tank to the toilet. At the same time, water from the mains, fills the second tank. In the second position, the second tank discharges and the first tank fill up. This arrangement discharges a regulated quantity of the liquid every time. Modified Rope And Washer Pump The rope and washer pump is a simple device, which can draw water from open water sources like lakes, open wells, streams, etc. It can draw from depth of 50 feet. The limitation of this pump is that it can draw water only up to the ground level of the operator. This disadvantage is overcome by the new design. Here the pulley is made up by joining three cycle tiers and has two grooves. It is used as shown in the figure. By this water can be lifted above the ground level. More Efficient Gas Stove In the conventional gas stove there is no provision for proper mixing of gas and air. So its efficiency is low. In the new design, gas is let into the circular chamber tangentially through a nozzle. Due to this, gas forms a vortex inside the chamber. By this, gas and air mixes thoroughly before coming out of the chamber. So heating is complete and efficient. Cleaning City Air A World Bank report on air pollution in 36 Indian cities revealed that SPM (Suspended Particulate Matter – small particles which are extremely toxic.) levels lead to the death of 40,000 people in a year. The study, repeated for the year 1995, showed that the number of deaths had increased to 52,000, a rise of 28 percent in just three years. Efforts to solve the problem concentrated on improving the vehicle engine. But other factors also contribute to the air pollution. Here is a simple way. Air filters can be fitted on top of the buses as shown in the figure. When the bus moves, air passes through the filter and comes out clean. A filter of 0.5m high,3m wide can be fixed on top of the bus. While traveling one Km. It cleans 0.5 x3x1000 = 1,500 cubic meters of air. One bus in a day usually covers 250 Km. So it cleans 3,75,000 cubic meters of air in a day. By fitting air filters to all the buses, enormous quantity of air can be cleaned. Countering the water Hammer Effects In big water supply systems, if the pump stops working, suddenly due to power failure or any other reason, the direction of water flow reverses. This also destroys the foot valve or breaks the pipe. It is called the water hammer effect. To avoid this, spring fitted valves can be fitted to this pipeline, which open when the pressure inside crosses a limit. Using a vortex diode can solve this problem. In vortex diode resistance to flow in one direction is higher than the opposite direction. Such a vortex diode is illustrated in fig.1. it is a shallow cylinder. One orifice, A is directed tangentially into the outer edge of the cylinder. The other orifice B is along the axis of the cylinder, as in the second diagram. If a fluid enters at A and leaves through B, it has to do so in a spiral or vortex, and it meets a high resistance. A vortex diode fitted to a pipeline as shown in the big II, will resist the backward flow of water. By this, it depresses the pressure built up and counters the water hammer effect. Help For Small Dairies Hundred of small-scale dairies operate in the rural areas. They sell milk in one liter and half-liter plastic pouches, and they are manually filled. It is a labour intensive and time consuming work. This can be simplified by the method explained here: From vessel ‘A’ milk flows to vessel ‘B’. A siphon ‘C’ is fitted to the vessel ‘B’. When level of milk crosses ‘D’, it starts to flow out through siphon, till the level of milk falls below ‘E’. Once, air enters the siphon, the flow of milk stops. This process can be repeated. By adjusting the height of the siphon, the quantity of milk can be fixed to one liter or half liter. It is labour saving, simple and economical. Sterling engine: This is the design of a simplified sterling cycle heat engine in which heat is absorbed from an external source. In this design, displaced piston and the power piston are joined together and thus eliminating mechanical linkages and valves. In sketch ‘A’, the pistons are at their lowest point and most of the working gas in the cold chamber. The flywheel makes the crankshaft to rotate, moving the pistons upward and compressing the working gas at the same time, the pistons displace the gas to the hot chamber. This process continues until the pistons are at top, as shown in fig ‘B’. The gas absorbs heat from the heat transfer mainfold. The temperature and pressure are at maximum and the working gas expands pushing the pistons down, applying a rotational force to the crankshaft / flywheel. When the piston reaches the bottom, the cycle is back, as shown in sketch ‘A’. A heat regenerator can be incorporated, as shown in fig ‘C’. Sketch ‘D’ shows an engine with 2 cold chambers and one hot chamber and 3 pistons. This device is efficient as the heat wastage is minimum. Automatic gear for bicycle: From figures 1 & 2, though the size of the gear wheel seems to be same, the length of the pedal is different. So this is good for the small road and high speed, while the second is slow but useful for negotiating a step track. In this new design, this two properties which are combined. It is a telescopic pedal with spring. On level road, the cyclist exerts less force and the pedal remains short. While negotiating a climb he exerts more force and the pedal extends. Pedaling becomes easy and it acts as a automatic gear. Even a cable arrangement can be made to change the length of the pedal, to make it as manual gear. Distilled water from seawater: In this method, seawater is covered with transparent plastic, which work as a solar water heater. The water vapor collected inside is sucked by a pump and condensed to obtain water. The availability of water depends on the area of the plastic encloser. Arecanut Dehusking Tool: The economic importance of arecanut sector can be realized from the fact that nearly 100 million people in India are either directly or indirectly connected to it. This tool consists of a stationary wedge, a movable wedge, a lever and a square plate. The shape of the wedge should be right angle triangle shaped. The stationary wedge is mounted upright on the base plate. Bottom of the moveable wedge is hinged to the bottom of the stationary wedge, facilitating its opening and closing. The lever fixed to the movable wedge provides the necessary mechanical advantage needed in husking. Self-weight of the lever force the two wedges to remain together, forming a larger wedge. The tool is supplied with 4 screws, base plate is fixed to a wooden plank of one square foot. The tool with the wooden plank can be placed on a table or any other place. Holding the arecanut with the right hand, it is thrust on to the wedge piercing the husk at its pedicel end and the parallel to its longitudinal axis. On pushing the lever forward with left hand the husk breaks in to two, freeing the nut. The nut then falls down. If the nut is not freed in one attempt, the operation is repeated. Most of the arecanuts are dehusked with two attempts. Sun tracing device having its own source of Energy: A solar tracker is a device that continuously moves the solar panels, solar heat collectors/ concentrators in such a fashion that the rays always fall perpendicularly and there is full utilization of energy. To sun track solar panels produce the same power as by 3 fixed panels, it saves the cost of one panel. One panel costs about 15,000 Rs/- A simple, inexpensive solar tracking device developed in USA is capable of orienting large objects in relation to the sun that the former even with changing positions of the latter constantly receives maximum solar energy. Based on a bellows type thermostat, it works without any external power source of complicated electronic gadgetry. This system comprises of an eye or sensing device that knows whether the object- for example, a mirror – is lagging behind the sun or leading it, and a hydraulic system that controls the position of the mirror. The core of the ‘eye’ is an automobile thermostat, which weighs only 2 ounces so that it gets hot and cold rapidly. The bellows contain some alcohol which boils the temperature of the thermostat goes above 60degree C, lifting the valve from its seat. A piece of rubber spaghetti tubing inserted between the valve and the valve seat links the eye to the hydraulic system: normally open, it is pinched close when the valve is closed. This tubing is so thick compared to the cross-section of the bellows that the pressure in it can become greater than in the bellows, resulting in fast response and high amplification – the two essentials of a good feed back system. The third requirement linearity is met by linearly relating the temperature of the thermostat to the mirror’s angular error in leading or lagging the sun. The thermostat is soldered to a flat plate heat collector comprising a 40.6 x 7.6 x 0.08 cm aluminium sheet painted black on the face to absorb sunlight. The back of the sheet is insulated and the face covered with a clear very thin plastic film. When the black face of the collector is exposed to direct sunlight, it gets heated in direct proportion to the area exposed. When the collector is suddenly put in the shade, it cools down rapidly because the plastic film is almost transparent to, and the collector plate is very good radiator of infrared. The film also allows good conduction, so the collector takes the same time to get heated in sunlight as to get called in shade. The response time of the ‘eye’ is about 3 minutes, while the sun moves only one-quarter degree in a minute. The collector, along with shade, is so attached to the mirror (fig. 2) that when the latter is lagging, the sun is ahead of it and the shadow on the collector is small, so it is sufficiently heated up to open the thermostat valve. But when the mirror is leading the sun, the shadow provides linear relationship between angular error and opening of the thermostat valve. To move the valve from its fully open to fully closed position, a shadow movement of less than an inch is sufficient. The hydraulic system drives the mirror- ‘eye’ assembly in the required track by the hydraulic force initiated by the opening and closing of the valve. It comprises of two water and anti freezer filled bags, each confined between 2 plywood discs (fig. 3). The top discs are fastened to the mirror’s stand, and hence cannot move. Any expansion and contraction of their bags, therefore, moves the bottom discs, which are constrained to each other and the mirror’s shaft by a cable. Since the volume of the bags is linear with the distance between the discs, the tension on the cable is unchanged, if water flows from one bag to the other. The water can be made to flow from one bag to the other bag by 1) setting one bag higher than the other, 2) using a spring that exerts a torque on the mirror’s shaft, 3) fastening a weight to one of the bottom plywood discs or, 4) using the available water pressure. The tracker must be reset every morning, as it doesn’t have its own source of energy. Opening a bypass valve between the two bags does this. Problem of resetting the tracker every morning is solved in the new design. ‘A’ in the fig. Is a black box designed as a solar heat collector,’C’ is a flexible bag made of rubber or plastic. A tube ‘B’ connects these two. A slow regulating cock ‘D’ is fixed to the tube. Keeping the bag flat, the box and the tube are filled with water. In the morning when the sun rays falls on the box, water inside evaporates and forces water to flow to the bag through the tube. Due to this displacement of the water from the box to the bag, bag side of the system becomes heavy and the whole system tilts to that side. This action goes on up to evening. At night water vapour inside the box condenses and water from the bag flows back to the box. Now the action is reverse and the system returns to its original position. An ‘eye’ assembly described in the ‘Invention intelligence’ is used to control the flow of water from box to the bag in relation to the position of the sun. A highlight of the new design is the use of a flexible bag. Instead of water alcohol or any other liquid having low boiling point can be used. A leaky one-way wall is used to slow down the return of the liquid to the box from Bag. It is a completely closed system. In place of rigid pipe flexible pipe can be used. Reducing the cost of gobar gas plant: Gobar gas plant is the largest and most prominent of all the rural renewable programmes implemented by the government. Two models are accepted. The KVC model with moveable gasholder and the Chinese model fixed dome type, known as the biogas plant. Disadvantages of the above models can be overcome by fabricating the gasholder, using flexible plastic sheet. As the required gas pressure is of the order of 7.5 cm water column only, thin plastic sheet will do. UV treated multi- layered plastic sheets are available in market and are strong, durable, tear proof. It is ideal to fabricate the gasholder. Fabrication is easy and no transportation is needed. Simple Alternate to Infusion Pump: Present day systems for the administration of Iv fluids depend upon mechanical flow regulator to control the flow rate. As the fluid in the reservoir decreases, the flow becomes non- uniform. Thus the system requires frequent monitoring and readjustments by the intervention of a human operator. This poses a serious disadvantage in intensive care units and discourages its use in applications that demand precise flow rates. These drawbacks necessitated the development of the infusion pump. It eliminates the need for continuous monitoring by trained personal and provides uniform and precisely controlled flow. Such infusion pump’s are costly, so a “Mariotte’s Bottle” can solve this problem. It can be used as reservoir for fluids. It is ordinary bottle with a narrow mouth having a glass tube inserted through the cork. When you open the tap the liquid flows out evenly until the level of the liquid outside the bottle drops below the end of the tube. By pushing the tube down almost to tap level, one can ensure the liquid to flow uniformly. This bottle is used as a reservoir for IV fluids. Reducing the size of gobar gas holder: Gobar gas contains 50% methane, 40% carbondaoxide and the rest is nitrogen, hydrogensulphide etc. So if we able to remove carbondaoxide, the size of the gasholder of the gobar gas plant can be reduced to 40%. This can be achieved by fixing a window to the top of the gas holder, made up of semi permeable membrane, which allows carbon di oxide to pass through but retains methane .It will reduce the cost of the gobar plant considerably. Simple water lifting machine: This device is useful to lift water for drinking purpose or for kitchen garden. One 200 lt. Capacity drum is fitted with a one-way valve, a suction pipe with foot valve and an outlet pipe with tape arrangement. Drum is placed on a wood-burning stove. Using agricultural waste, drum is heated. Water inside the drum evaporates and pushes the inside air to outside through the one way valve. Slowly steam fills the drum completely. When the fire in the stove dies, drum cools down. Steam condenses creating Vaccum. Due to this water from the reservoir flows to the drum through the suction pipe and fills it. This water can be taken out by opening the tap. Outlet pipe is fixed such that a certain amount of water always remains inside the drum. The process is slow, but is economic and economical. New Design Bullock Cart: Main point in improving the efficiency of the bullock cart is to reduce the weight carried by the bullocks. Fixing a third wheel to the cart can minimize the load on the bullocks. But it creates another problem. Sudden depressions in the road will result in sudden transfer of load tot he bullocks which will be equivalent to approximately twice the normal load. Sudden transfer of load to the bullocks at road depressions can be avoided by fixing the pull bar to the central axis of the 2 big wheels instead of Chassis as shown in fig. Easy fill bucket: When the bottom of the bucket touches the water, it tilts to one side and water enters into it. This can be avoided by fixing a one-way valve to the bottom of the bucket. Movement of water in to the bucket will be smooth and speedier. In Karnataka plastic or aluminum vessels called ‘Kodapana’ are used for lifting water from the well. Steam as Weedicide: Flame can be used to kill Weeds. Instead of flame, hot steam can also be used, as there is danger of fire in using flame. Pressure cooker is used to produce steam Adjustable Cam: The rod of the wheel passes through a hole in the driving shaft. It can be made to move up and down through the hole in the driving shaft and can be fixed at any desired position using the screw. Preventing Water Lodging in Biogas Pipeline: Using the modern ceramic vents can solve this problem. In the lead acid battery special ceramic vents are used to prevent the water vapour leaving the battery. These vents are permeable to water vapour. It helps to maintain the acid level inside the battery. By fixing this type of vent to the mouth of gas pipeline inside the gasholder, water vapour can be prevented from entering the pipeline. Drinking water from seawater: The simplest way to get drinking water from seawater is to boil it and condense the steam. But to boil seawater enormous energy is needed. Reducing the pressure can solve this problem. The reduction pressure is accompanied by a depression in the boiling point of water. Thus lower temperature can be employed. Torricellian vacuum can be employed to reduce the temperature. The height of the tower is 10 m. At the top of the tower an air tight solar pond is constructed. A pipeline is taken from the sea to the solar pond. Air inside the solar pond is sucked continuously using an air pump. As the drops inside the solar pond water from the sea flows to it. But the water will move only up to a height of 9.8 cm high only. Solar rays supply energy for this. Air pump suck this water vapour. By condensing this vapour pure water is obtained. It is cheap and convenient. Toy Boat: He has a toy boat with a flexible diaphragm. A small lamp is lit under the boiler. As the boiler got heated the boat moved forward with put-put sound. Tube “A” is heated. Hot water moves out through ‘B’ and cold water enters the tube through ‘C’. This action is continuous as long as tube is heated and in reaction boat moves in opposite direction. Automatic switch for water tanks: This switch operates the pump only when the tank is nearly empty and stops it automatically when the tank is full. It comprises of 2 floats (A &B) attached to each other by means of a string. One of the floats (A) is fixed o the lever. When the tank is full, the lever remains balanced due to the weight of the float (A). With the decrease in water level, the float (B) goes down and when the tank is near empty, its weight acts on the lever, putting on the switch and causing the pump to operate. Automatic switch for irrigation Pump: A wooden block is used as a float. When the water is full in the well, wooden block floats on the water freely. As the level of water falls below that of foot valve, wooden block pulls the rope and pump switch is put off. This avoids the tedious work that the farmer undergoes, as in case of normal pumps. Leak Proof Sprayer: Flow controller is held by hand while spraying, as a result it cause grave consequences. This new design by him solves the leakage problem, found in old design. Flexible pipe made of plastic or rubber, pinched by tongs, controls the flow. It is very safe. Gobar Gas Plant: He has developed a new design of Gobar gas plant, which is simple and economical, because the guide pipe and its supporting frame are eliminated. ‘A’ is the KVIC gobargas plant. Only the gasholder part is shown. The gas, which bubbles out from the cattle dung slurry, is collected in the gas drum. The drum rises as the gas fills the drum. In it’s up and down movement, a central pipe fitted in a frame, which is fixed in masonary work, guides the drum. This guide pipe is one of the weakest point of the plant. He has given a solution. Avoid the guide pipe. Attach a weight to the gasholder as shown in sketch ‘B’. Due to the lowering of the center of gravity, gasholder floats in upright position and moves up and down without the help of a guide pipe.

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